Palacký University Olomouc


Spatial interaction and regional taxonomy

Prostorové interakce a regionální taxonomie

After 2007 quantitatively conceived research into geographical organisation of space has been successfully established at the Department of Geography, particularly the research into laws of spatial distribution of the settlement and regional systems, and our results were repeatedly published in the leading world geographical journals (Journal of Transport Geography, Regional Studies, Applied Geography, Area, The Geographical Journal, Environment and Planning A). We are concerned with conceptualisation and analyses of aggregated spatial interactions such as travel-to-work, migration, mobile data and we define and interpret functional regions of territories. We also model spatial interactions, which is particularly purposeful in the cases, when statistical or big data on the population mobility do not exist (historical tasks, geographical predictions). Our work grounded in quantitative methods of regional taxonomy, including fuzzy set theory. Recently we have been using theoretical and methodological apparatus of the time geography. Cartographic visualisation of our results is inseparable part of the research.

Research interests


Former team members


Current projects

Closed projects


Halás, M., Klapka, P. (2023): The timescape of the city: example of spatial interactions based on big data. Habitat International 131, 102736.

Kraft, S., Halás, M., Klapka, P., Blažek, V. (2022): Functional regions as a platform to define integrated transport system zones: the use of population flows data. Applied Geography 144, 102732. DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2022.102732.

Tonev, P., Halás, M., Klapka, P., Kraft, S. (2022): Vybrané prostorové aspekty migrace specifických skupin obyvatelstva v ČR [Selected spatial aspects of the migration of specific population groups within the Czech Republic]. In: Klímová, V., Žítek, V. eds.: 25th International Colloquium on Regional Sciences. Conference Proceedings. Masarykova  univerzita, Brno, 437–445. DOI: 10.5817/CZ.MUNI.P280-0068-2022-53

Halás, M., Blažek, V., Klapka, P., Kraft, S. (2021): Population movements based on mobile phone location data: the Czech Republic. Journal of Maps 17(1), 166–122. DOI: 10.1080/17445647.2021.1937730

Halás, M., Klapka, P. (2021): Revealing the structures of internal migration: A distance and a time-space behaviour perspectives. Applied Geograhy 137, 102603. DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2021.102603

Klapka, P., Erlebach, M. (2021): The contribution of spatial interaction modelling to spatial history: the case of central places and their hinterlands in the territory of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Moravian Geographical Reports 29 (4), 267–277. DOI: 10.2478/mgr-2021-0019

Halás, M., Klapka, P. (2020): Heterogenita a kontinuita geografického prostoru: příklad funkčních regionů Slovenska. Geografie 125(3), 319–342. DOI: 10.37040/geografie2020125030319

Halás, M., Kraft, S., Klapka, P. (2020): Global spatial organization of air transport: the definition of functional airline regions. The Geographical Journal 186(1), 2–15. DOI: 10.1111/geoj.12313

Klapka, P., Kraft, S., Halás, M. (2020): Network based definition of functional regions: A graph theory approach for spatial distribution of traffic flows. Journal of Transport Geography 88, 102855. DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2020.102855

Erlebach, M., Halás, M., Daniel, J., Klapka, P. (2019): Is there congruence in the spatial patterns of regions derived from scalar and vector geographical information? Moravian Geographical Reports 27(1), 2–14. DOI: 10.2478/mgr-2019-0001

Halás, M., Klapka, P., Erlebach, M. (2019): Unveiling spatial uncertainty: a method to evaluate the fuzzy nature of functional regions. Regional Studies 53 (7), 1029–1041. DOI: 10.1080/00343404.2018.1537483

Halás, M., Klapka, P., Hurbánek, P., Bleha, B., Pénzes, J., Pálóczi, G. (2019): A definition of relevant functional regions for international comparisons: the case of Central Europe. Area 51(3), 489–499. DOI: 10.1111/area.12487

Klapka, P. (2019): Regiony a regionální taxonomie: koncepty, přístupy, aplikace. Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci, Olomouc.

Klapka, P., Tomáš, M. (2019): Možnosti a problémy modelování dopravních toků a dalších prostorových interakcí v širší oblasti Krkonoš. Opera Corcontica 56, 105–117.

Tonev, P., Halás, M., Klapka, P. (2018): Prostorová neurčitost funkčních regionů: porovnání pracovní dojížďky v letech 1991 – 2011. In: Klímová, V., Žítek, V. eds.: 21st International Colloquium on Regional Sciences. Conference Proceedings. Masarykova univerzita, Brno, 285–292. DOI: 10.5817/CZ.MUNI.P210-8970-2018-37

Halás, M., Klapka, P. (2017): Functionality versus gerrymandering and nationalism in administrative geography: lessons from Slovakia. Regional Studies 51(10), 1568–1579. DOI: 10.1080/00343404.2016.1215602

Halás, M., Klapka, P., Bačík, V., Klobučník, M. (2017): The spatial equity principle in the administrative division of the Central European countries. PLoS ONE 12(11), e0187406. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0187406

Tonev, P., Tomáš, M., Erlebach, M., Halás, M., Klapka, P. (2017): Prostorová neurčitost funkčních regionů: porovnání školské a pracovní dojížďky. In: Klímová, V., Žítek, V. eds.: 20th International Colloquium on Regional Sciences. Conference Proceedings. Masarykova univerzita, Brno, 342–348. DOI: 10.5817/CZ.MUNI.P210-8587-2017-43

Halás, M., Erlebach, M., Klapka, P., Tomáš, M. (2016): Efficiency of delineation of administrative regions: a functional region approach. In: Klímová, V., Žítek, V. eds.: 19th International Colloquium on Regional Sciences. Conference Proceedings. Masarykova univerzita, Brno, 565–572. DOI: 10.5817/CZ.MUNI.P210-8273-2016-72

Halás, M., Klapka, P., Tonev, P. (2016): The use of migration data to define functional regions: the case of the Czech Republic. Applied Geography 76, 98–105. DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2016.09.010

Halás, M., Kraft, S. (2016): Modeling and prediction of long-distance traffic flows through the example of road transport in the Czech Republic. Scottish Geographical Journal 132 (1), 103–117. DOI: 10.1080/14702541.2015.1084029

Klapka, P., Halás, M. (2016): Conceptualising patterns of spatial flows: Five decades of advances in the definition and use of functional regions. Moravian Geographical Reports 24 (2), 2–11. DOI: 10.1515/mgr-2016-0006

Klapka, P., Halás, M., Netrdová, P., Nosek, V. (2016): The efficiency of areal units in spatial analysis: Assessing the performance of functional and administrative regions. Moravian Geographical Reports 24(2), 47–59. DOI: 10.1515/mgr-2016-0010

Pálóczi, G., Pénzes, J., Hurbánek, P., Halás, M., Klapka, P. (2016): Attempts to delineate functional regions in Hungary based on commuting data. Regional Statistics 6 (1), 23–41. DOI: 10.15196/RS06102

Tomáš, M., Klapka, P., Halás, M., Erlebach, M. (2016): Inner structure of functional regions: relationships between proto-centres. In: Klímová, V., Žítek, V. eds.: 19th International Colloquium on Regional Sciences. Conference Proceedings. Masarykova univerzita, Brno, 573–579. DOI: 10.5817/CZ.MUNI.P210-8273-2016-73

Halás, M., Klapka, P. (2015): Spatial influence of regional centres of Slovakia: analysis based on the distance-decay function. Rendiconti Lincei - Scienze Fisiche e Naturali 26 (2), 169–185. DOI: 10.1007/s12210-015-0387-4

Halás, M., Klapka, P., Bednář, M., Tonev, P. (2015): An alternative definition and use for the constraint function for rule-based methods of functional regionalisation. Environment and Planning A 47 (5), 1175–1191. DOI: 10.1177/0308518X15592306

Erlebach, M., Klapka, P., Halás, M., Tonev, P. (2014): Inner structure of functional region: theoretical aspects. In: 17th International Colloquim on Regional Science. Conference Proceedings. (Hustopeče 18.–20.6. 2014). Masarykova univerzita, Brno, 722–727. DOI: 10.5817/CZ.MUNI.P210-6840-2014-93

Halás, M. (2014): Modelovanie priestorového usporiadania a dichotómie centrum – periféria. Geografie 119 (4), 384–405.

Halás, M., Klapka, P., Bleha, B., Bednář, M. (2014): Funkčné regióny na Slovensku podľa denných tokov do zamestnania. Geografický časopis 66 (2), 89–114.

Halás, M., Klapka, P., Kladivo, P. (2014): Distance-decay functions for daily travel-to-work flows. Journal of Transport Geography 35, 107–119.

Halás, M., Klapka, P., Tonev, P. (2014): A contribution to human geographical regionalisation of the Czech Republic at the mezzo level. In: 17th International Colloquim on Regional Science. Conference Proceedings. (Hustopeče 18. – 20.6. 2014). Masarykova univerzita, Brno, 715–721. DOI:

Klapka, P., Halás, M., Erlebach, M., Tonev, P., Bednář, M.(2014): A multistage agglomerative approach for defining functional regions of the Czech Republic: the use of 2001 commuting data. Moravian Geographical Reports 22 (4), 2–13. DOI:

Kraft, S., Halás, M., Vančura, M. (2014): The delimitation of urban hinterlands based on transport flows: a case study of regional capitals in the Czech Republic. Moravian Geographical Reports 22 (1), 24–32. DOI:

Halás, M., Zuskáčová, V. (2013): Travelling to services in the daily urban system of Olomouc. Bulletin of Geography, Socio-economic Series 20, 23–41. DOI:

Klapka, P., Erlebach, M., Král, O., Lehnert, M., Mička, T. (2013): The footfall of shopping centres in Olomouc (Czech Republic): An application of the gravity model. Moravian Geographical Reports 21 (3), 12–26. DOI:

Klapka, P., Halás, M.,Tonev, P. (2013): Functional regions: concept and types. In: 16th International Colloquim on Regional Science. Conference Proceedings. (Valtice 19.-21.6.2013). Masarykova univerzita, Brno, 94–101. DOI:

Klapka, P., Halás, M., Tonev, P., Bednář, M. (2013): Functional regions of the Czech Republic: comparison of simpler and more advanced methods of regional taxonomy. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis, Facultas Rerum Naturalium, Geographica 44 (1), 45–57. supplementary materials

Halás, M., Klapka, P. (2012): Contribution to regional division of Slovakia based on the application of the Reilly’s model. Hungarian Geographical Bulletin 61 (3), 237–255.

Halás, M., Klapka, P. (2012): Distance decay function and its application in the territory of the Czech Republic. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis, Facultas Rerum Naturalium, Geographica 43 (1), 57–60.

Halás, M., Kladivo, P., Šimáček, P., Mintálová, T. (2010): Delimitation of micro-regions in the Czech Republic by nodal relations. Moravian Geographical Reports 18 (2), 16–22.

Halás, M., Klapka, P. (2010): Regionalizace Česka z hlediska modelování prostorových interakcí. Geografie 115 (2), 144–160.

Kladivo, P., Roubínek, P., Halás, M. (2010): Modelové příklady regionalizací a jejich aplikační přínos na území Olomouckého kraje. Regionální studia 3 (2), 19–28.

Halás, M. (2008): Priestorová polarizácia spoločnosti s detailným pohľadom na periférne regióny Slovenska. Sociologický časopis / Czech Sociological Review 44 (2), 349–369.

Klapka, P., Frantál, B., Halás, M., Kunc, J. (2010): Spatial organisation: development, structure and approximation of geographical systems. Moravian Geographical Reports 18 (3), 53–65.

Klapka, P., Niedźwiedźová, K. (2010): Geographical organisation of the Nový Jičín region: transformations of its selected aspects during the Industrial Revolution (Czech lands). Moravian Geographical Reports 18 (4), 39–55.

Halás, M., Klapka, P. (2009): Grafické modely regiónov. Acta Geographica Universitatis Comenianae 53, 49–57.

Řehák, S., Halás, M., Klapka, P. (2009): Několik poznámek k možnostem aplikace Reillyho modelu. Geographia Moravica 1. UP v Olomouci, Olomouc, 47–58.

Klapka, P., Tonev, P. (2008): Regiony a regionalizace. In: Toušek, V., Kunc, J., Vystoupil, J. a kol.: Ekonomická a sociální geografie. Vydavatelství a nakladatelství Aleš Čeněk, Plzeň, 371–397.